A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is an Indian scientist and politician who served his country as president from 2002 to 2007.
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born in India on October 15, 1931. A lifelong scientist who studied physics and aerospace engineering, Kalam's prominent role in India's 1998 nuclear weapons tests established him as a national hero. Among his many accolades, including honorary doctorates from 40 universities, he was granted the Padma Bhushan (1981), the Padma Vibhushan (1990), and the Bharat Ratna (1997) — India's highest civilian awards — for his contributions in modernizing government defense technology. Known as the People's President, Kalam was so popular that MTV nominated him for a Youth Icon of the Year award in 2003 and 2006.
In 2002, India's ruling National Democratic Alliance helped him win election against the country's former president, Kocheril Raman Narayanan; Kalam became India's 11th president, a largely ceremonial post, in July 2002. On July 27, 2015 Kalam suffered from a massive heart attack while lecturing at the Indian Institute of Management and subsequently died at the age of 83.
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